Pariṇāma (“transformation”), a key term in the philosophy of Patanjali, denotes serial change. According to the Yoga-Sutra (3.13), transformation is of three basic types: (1) dharma-parinama, change in the form of a substance; (2) lakshana-parinama, change implicit in the fact that time (kala) consists of past, present, and future; and (3) avastha-parinama, qualitative change due to the effects of time ( i.e., aging), as when an earthen vessel breaks and turns to dust. Patanjali seeks to apply these insights to consciousness and its transmutation through the techniques of Yoga. Patanjali’s philosophy of change disallows permanency to the phenomena of the cosmos. Only the transcendental Self (purusha) is considered to enjoy immutability (aparinamitva).