The Bhagavad Gita translated by Antonio T. De Nicolas
The Bhagavad Gita - Chapter 13
The Yoga of Discriminating the Field and the Knower of the Field
O Kesava, (Krsna), I wish to know Prakrti and Purusa,
The field and the knower of the field,
What is knowledge and what is to be known
(This stanza is not found in all the editions of the Gītā, so it is kept unnumbered.)
The Blessed One said:
1. This body, O Son of Kuntī, is called the field,
And he who knows it,
Those who know, call the knower of the field.
2. Know me, O Bhārata, to be the knower of the field in all fields;
The knowledge of the field and of the knower of the field:
This I hold to be (real) knowledge.
3. Hear from me briefly what this field is,
What it is like, what its modifications, and whence it comes,
As well as who he (the knower) is and what his powers.
4. This has been sung many times by sages,
In various hymns separately,
And also in the well-reasoned
and definitive aphorisms about Brahman.
5. The (five) gross elements, the sense of I,
Understanding, the unmanifested, the ten senses
And one (mind) and the five sensory realms;
6. Desire and aversion, pleasure and pain,
The bodily aggregate (samghata), knowledge (cetanā), will (dhrti):
This, in brief, is the field with its modifications.
7. Lack of arrogance and deceit, nonviolence, patience,
Uprightness, service to one’s teacher, cleanness,
8. Dispassion toward sense objects, lack of identification with the I,
Perception of the evils of birth and death
Of old age and sickness and pain,
9. Nonattachment, lack of clinging to son, wife, home, and the like,
Constant even mindedness in desirable and undesirable occurrences,
10. Unfailing dedication to me
and unswerving dedication to yoga,
Resort to isolated places, dislike for crowds of people,
11. Constancy in knowledge of the self,
Vision of the purpose of essential knowledge:
This is declared to be wisdom,
And whatever is other than this, is non-knowledge.
12. I will describe which is to be known,
And by knowing which one gains immortality.
This is the beginningless supreme Brahman,
Who is said to be neither existent nor nonexistent.
13. With hands and feet everywhere,
Faces and heads, eyes and ears on every side,
It stands, encompassing all, in the world.
14. Appearing to have qualities of all the senses,
Yet free of all the senses,
Bearing all yet unattached,
Enjoyer of the gunas yet free from the gunas,
15. Both outside and inside beings,
both moving and unmoving,
Too subtle to be discerned;
far away yet it is also near.
16. Undivided, yet standing as if divided among beings,
And as destroyer and producer of beings.
17. Light of Lights, it is said to be beyond darkness;
It is knowledge, what is to be known,
and the goal of knowledge,
It is seated in the heart of all.
18. Thus the field, knowledge, and what is to be known has been briefly stated.
Devoted to me, having understood this,
One arrives at this state of mine (madbhāvāya).
19. Know that prakrti and purusa are both beginningless;
Know also that the modifications and gunas are born of prakrti.
20. Prakrti is said to be cause of the generation of causes and agents;
Purusa is said to be cause in the experience of pleasure and pain.
21. For purusa, dwelling in prakrti,
experiences the gunas born of prakrti.
Attachment to the gunas is the cause
of births in good and evil wombs.
22. The supreme spirit in this body is also called:
Witness, and Consenter, Sustainer, Enjoyer, Great Lord, Supreme Self.
23. He who knows the purusa and prakrti with its gunas,
Is not born again, whatever turns his existence takes.
24. By meditation some see the self in the self by the self;
Others do this by the yoga of Sāmkhya,
Still others by the yoga of action.
25. Others, however, without knowing this,
Worship it, having heard (of these things) from others;
And they too, taking refuge in what they have heard,
Cross beyond death also.
26. Whatever being is born, movable or immovable,
Know it to be born from the union of field
And the knower of the field, O Best of the Bhāratas.
27. He who sees the Supreme Lord
standing the same in all beings,
Not perishing when they perish,
He sees indeed.
28. For seeing the same Lord standing everywhere equally,
He does not injure the self through the self;
Thus he goes to the supreme goal.
29. He who sees that actions are everywhere done by prakrti
And who likewise sees his self not to be the doer,
He sees indeed.
30. When he sees the various states of beings
Abiding in the One and refracting out from it,
Then he attains Brahman.
31. Because this supreme self, imperishable, without beginning or qualities,
Neither acts nor is tainted,
Even though embodied, O Son of Kuntī,
32. As the omnipresent ether
is not defiled because of its subtleness,
So the self, abiding in every body, is not affected.
33. As the one sun illumines this entire world,
So does the field-knower illumine the entire field, O Bhārata.
34. They attain the supreme, who, with the eye of knowledge,
Know in this way the difference of the field and the knower of the field,
And the liberation of beings from prakrti.
This is the end of the thirteenth chapter, entitled
“The Yoga of Discriminating the Field and the Knower of the Field”